Mami Hiraike Okawara, professor
Graduate School of Regional Policy
Takasaki City University of Economics
Forensic Linguistics is a relatively new field, and a term was first coined by Jan Svartvik when he wrote The Evans Statement in 1968. The book examined a murder case that took place in November 1949, in which Timothy Evans was arrested for the murder of his wife and infant daughter. His trial began in January 1950. But because the prosecution was able to obtain his written confession during the initial investigation, Evans ended up receiving a death sentence and was put to death in March of the same year. Three years after Evans’s execution, John Christine was arrested for the murder of four women including his wife. During his trial, Christine confessed that he murdered Evans’s wife, which brought significant controversies and debates over Evans’s wrongful conviction and eventual execution. Svartvik made a corpus analysis of the original written statement of Evans’ confession and found two distinctly contrasted grammatical styles: (1) an educated style, possibly coached by an investigating officer, and (2) a casual writing style reflected by the defendant himself. He concluded that the authenticity of Evans’ written confession was very questionable, suggesting that the content of the statement contained the sign of significant external influence, rather than his own.
Another pioneering analysis in forensic linguistics comes from the Bentley case involving the attempted burglary and murder of a police officer in 1953, for which nineteen-year-old Derek Bentley was convicted and later executed. Although the actual murder was carried out by sixteen-year-old Chris Craig, he was not given the death penalty because of his age at the time of arrest. It was stated that Bentley’s IQ was far below the average of his peers and he was also functionary illiterate. Recognizing that this case involved complicity in a burglary attempt, forensic linguist Malcolm Coulthard analyzed Bentley’s confession statement and argued that Bentley personally did not make a confession as noted in the statement to the police. Rather, using a corpus analysis of the term ‘then’ in the confession statement, he found that large parts of Bentley’s writings reflected, and were composed of, words and language used by investigating officers assigned to the case.
This is how forensic linguistics, the application of principles and methods of linguistic analysis to the language of legal proceedings and documents, has become an established area in the interdisciplinary area of law and language in English speaking countries.
Forensic linguistics in Japan stayed dormant for nearly ten years after the first publication of the forensic linguistic paper ‘hou-gengogaku no taidou’ (Embryonic Movements of Forensic Linguistics) in 1998. With the preparation for the lay judge system started in 2005, there has been a growing interest among legal experts in making courtroom language clearer for lay judges. This has opened the way for recognition of forensic linguistic studies in general.
In this presentation I would like to present a revised version of the first Japanese expert opinion of a forensic linguistic analysis of the testimony in a criminal case involving a charge of complicity. In this case two men and two women were indicted for a crime of bodily injury resulting in death. Three of the defendants admitted to all of the criminal charges, whereas one defendant denied the charges. The same prosecutors sought conviction of all four of the defendants while different counsels for the defense were appointed for each trial. I was present at the eight-day trial of the defendant who pleaded not guilty. I analyzed one witness’s direct examination testimony from the perspective of the prosecution and investigated the influence of witness preparation by the prosecutor with the use of forensic linguistic analysis.
My expert opinion was submitted to the Tokyo High Court and then to the Japanese Supreme Court. In the opinion I identified the characteristics of prosecutor’s language which would appear in the prosecution witness’s answer during direct examination. By using qualitative and quantitative analysis, such as co-occurrence and concordance of words, I performed a linguistic comparison of the language that was used in a witness’s answer against that of five relevant documents. This included (1) a prosecutor’s opening statement, (2) a prosecutor’s final statement, (3) eleven samples of suspect’s statements from the handbook for investigating officers, and (4) two personal letters of the witness. The result of the analysis indicates that the witness’s responses had the features of the prosecutor’s written language. Therefore, I argue that the prosecutor’s ten meetings with the witness immediately before trial may possibly have influenced not only the witness’s language but also the content of the testimony itself.
Alexandra Lichá, Masters´ student
Sciences Po Paris
Songdo International Business District (Songdo IBD) is a new luxurious “green” and “smart” city near Incheon, Gyeonggi-do, scheduled for completion by 2015. It is the ultimate crystallization of the South Korean trend of moving towards “cyborg cities”1. Beyond integrating telecoms into the urban fabric in big cities like Seoul (3G/4G coverage, bus application for smartphones et cetera), Songdo IBD aims to take the urban smart grid innovation one step further, including not only the “usual” utilities but also services networks. This would include, among others, household remote control management through internet devices as well as remote healthcare, tutoring and service delivery requests in order to “achieve social, economic and environmental sustainability,” claims the official “Cisco Smart+Connected Residential Solution Video.”2
Initiated by the central government, the city is developed on 1,500 acres of land reclaimed from the Yellow Sea at the cost of 35 billion USD by a joint-venture between CISCO (Korea) and Gale International (USA). Songdo flagship’s former president Lee Myong Bak belief that the 21st century belongs to cities3. Songdo IBD aims to be an example of how South Korean housing issues could be resolved while following the current trend in urban planning towards environmental sustainability as set out by the OECD.
We interpret the Songdo IBD project as resulting from Greater Seoul Metropolitan Area’s move towards enhancing competitiveness. Thus, the “marriage” of the geographical location and the “green & smart” city concept seems to be no coincidence. The attractiveness of Songdo IBD is embodied mainly in the notions of access4 and luxury through innovation. First, the proximity to the “aerotropolis”5 of Incheon supports the image of Songdo IBD as an important hub in North East Asia; in other words, investing in Songdo IBD would allow prospective investors to profit from not only the positive spillover of clustering but more importantly the relative proximity to other business and financial centers such as Tokyo or Hong Kong. Second, Songdo IBD, as a master- planned sustainable city, seems to offer more than a policy solution to the economic crisis, climate
1 We use the concept of cyborg city according to GANDY, M. (2005), “Cyborg Urbanization: Complexity and Monstrosity in the Contemporary City” in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29: 26–49.
2 “Cisco Smart+Connected Residential Solution Video”, available online at Cisco’s official channel http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wTHf_GB8lP4 (Acquired February 25th, 2013).
3 LINDSAY, G. (2011) “Cities of the Sky” in The Wall Street Journal, Feb. 26, 2011; available online http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703408604576164703521850100.html (Acquired on February 27th, 2013)
4 Attractiveness of access interpreted according to RIFKIN, J. (2001), The Age of Access; New York, NY: Tarcher 5 KASARDA, J. D. and G. LINDSAY (2011). Aerotropolis: The Way We’ll Live Next. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus
and Girouxchange and population growth, but also a new lifestyle brand, marketed by CISCO as “intelligent living”: a city which is safe, clean (environmentally friendly) and luxurious at the same time and consequently increasing its perception as a desirable urban planning solution.
In this paper, we will analyse Songdo IBD as a case of public policy diffusion of the greenfield master-planned smart and sustainable urban planning solutions to tackle economic crisis, population boom and environmental sustainability. We will underline the various aspects that make Songdo IBD-like projects appealing for the policymakers, mainly using the concepts of competitiveness, global city and digital divide. We will then use Ostrom’s (2005) critique of the so-called “blueprint solutions”6 to point out negative externalities and possible policy failures related to both the diffusion of “green” and “smart” cities in general and the Songdo IBD case which would include, among others, the ecosystem changes of the area caused by the landfill, illustrating the paradox of what could be called “innovation diffusion without translation”.
6 OSTROM, E. (2005) “Robust Resource Governance in Polycentric Institutions” in OSTROM, E. Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p. 255-288
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